Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
Hello gardeners, today we are here with a new topic and to share information about growing papaya in Polyhouse or Greenhouse. We all know that the Polyhouse and Greenhouse are not the same, however, some of the growing practices are the same in both conditions. Do you want to grow Papaya in a controlled environment like a Polyhouse? Well, in this article, we are here to let you know the requirements for growing papaya in Polyhouse.
Introduction to Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
The papaya plant belongs to the family called Caricaceae. Botanically Papaya plant is called Carica papaya and it is also called papaw or pawpaw. Papaya originated from tropical America, it has become a very popular fruit due to its very fast growth, high yield, and high nutrient value as well. Papaya is mainly grown in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. Now let us get into details of growing Papaya in the protected environment.
A Step By Step Guide for Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
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The Papaya fruits may take on a different variety of shapes, including pear-like or round, and they are also well known for their sweet, yellow, or orange flesh. The fruits of the Papaya plants are also called pawpaw and it is also eaten raw without the skin. The Papaya fruit is very sweet, low in calories, and very high in potassium and vitamin A. Papaya fruit is also commonly used in drinks, jellies, salads, desserts, and they are also dried and candied.
Advantages of Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
Papaya grown in polyhouse will be almost free from the diseases like papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf curl virus, and less infected by collar rot, stem rot. Papaya is a tropical crop that requires very high temperatures to produce good quality fruits all year round.
Suitable Climate and Soil for Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
Papaya trees grow in tropical climates. The optimum temperature is 25 to 30°C and a minimum of 16°C. the acceptable pH value for Papaya is between 6 and 6.5. The well-drained or sandy loam soil with adequate organic matter is that the main important for the Papaya cultivation in Polyhouse. In high rainfall areas, if drainage is poor and roots are continuously drenched for twenty-four – 48 hours, it’s going to cause the death of the plants. Sticky and calcareous soils aren’t good as rainwater can accumulate within the soil even just for a couple of hours. During this case, a better-raised bed and ditch are mainly recommended.
The Papaya Seeds Source
The seed needs to be from a dependable source and sown as soon as possible. The remaining or rest of the seeds should be sealed tightly and kept at cool that is in 5 -10°C and dry place like under relative humidity 40%.
Suitable Season for Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
Papaya trees are planted in the monsoon, autumn, and even in the spring season. It should not be planted during the winter season as the frost can cause damage or injury to your plant. In other words, Papaya seeds are planted in the months of June-July that mean monsoon, October-November which means autumn, or February-March that means summer. The first few things to be considered while Papaya plant is rain, frost, and hot air since all the three cause injury to the plant.
Papaya Propagation in Polyhouse
In case if you miss this: Polyhouse Vegetable Gardening In India.
Papaya plants are commonly grown from seed. The germination process can take 3 to 5 weeks. It is expedited to nearly 2 to 3 weeks and the percentage of the germination process can be increased by washing off the aril. Then the seeds need to be dried and dusted with fungicide to avoid damping-off, this is a common cause of loss of seedlings.
Well-prepared papaya seeds can be stored for as long as three years but the percentage of germination may decline with age. Dipping is done for 15 seconds in hot water at 70º C and then soaking is done for 24 hrs. in distilled water after removing from storage will help to develop the germination rate. If germination is very slow at some seasons, treatment with gibberellic acid can be needed to get very quick results.
Papaya seeds can be planted directly in the field, or the seedlings which are raised in beds or pots may be transplanted when 6 weeks old or even up to 6 months of age. Although they need to have great care in handling and the longer the delay the greater the risk of dehydrated or twisted roots. Also, transplanting may often result in trunk-curvature in windy locations.
Seed Germination Process for Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
The optimum temperature range is from 21°C to 27°C, and of radical emergence is from 19 to 29°C. It takes nearly 1 to 4 weeks from sowing the seeds to emerge depending on the temperature. The seed needs to be treated with Thiram (TMTD) W.P. before sowing them to control the fungus diseases at the plant’s young stage.
Some Important Facts for Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
A Polyhouse is formed of transparent, tight, cheap, and versatile polythene. In these houses, fruit crops are often grown in any season of the year, because temperature and humidity can easily be controlled in Polyhouse. Polythene may conserve the thermal radiation, which increases the temperature and provides enough energy for the photosynthesis process.
Papaya trees grown under the Polyhouse are safe from unfavorable environments and hailstorms, heavy rains, or scorching sunshine. They’re saved from birds and other wild animals.
The humidity of the Polyhouse farming isn’t adversely suffering from evaporation leading to less requirement of water. Within the limited area of the Polyhouse, insect and pest control is straightforward and fewer expensive.
Before sowing the Papaya seeds, rotten manure is filled in polythene bags of 10 x 15 centimeters size, alongside an equal quantity of soil and sand. Then, water is sprinkled on the luggage, and seeds are sown within the bags. Small holes are produced within the bags for straightforward aeration. These bags need to keep inside the Polyhouse till the Papaya plants grow to about 10-15 centimeters and are then transferred to pots or earth. These plants must tend to manure and water from time to time.
Generally, the disease doesn’t spread, if at all, a touch aerosol is required. In about one month the formation of fruits is going to be started.
For earning maximum profit through maximum production from the Papaya crops grown within the Polyhouse, it’s not only necessary to pay proper attention to the availability of manure and water to the plants and protects them from disease but their cleanliness and pruning is additionally important.
Manuring and Fertilization for Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
A Papaya tree needs more nutrition fertilizer due to its short juvenile period. Papaya plant prefers soils with excellent and high organic matter. Apply the required amount of farmyard manure by mixing it with urea and of muriatic of potash in February month or March every year per plant. The suitable manure and fertilizer mixture needs to be mixed within a radius of 40cm around the plants.
Water Requirement for Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
The water requirement for the Papaya plant depends on the environmental factors of the area like light, temperature, wind, soil type, etc. It may also differ with the age of the plant. A young Papaya plant would want or need more moisture than the older trees. This is just because older Papaya trees have very slow vegetative growth. Hence the seedlings need to be irrigated once or twice a week while fruit-bearing trees want irrigation once every 15 days.
Winter and Summer Care For Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
Normally, watering Papaya plants every 10 days in winter or every week in summer, but this practice varies according to the soil, climatic or weather conditions, and irrigation methods. Ring method, furrow method, or even drip irrigation can be done. Though, you need to be sure to prevent the water from coming in contact with the stem. Irrigation can prevent your papaya plant from the damage of frost.
Transplanting Of Papaya Seedlings to Polyhouse
Seedlings of papaya are ready for transplanting into the field it takes nearly about 6 to 8 weeks after germination. You need to transport your papaya seedlings to the field 3 to 4 days before the proposed planting date to reduce stress at planting. When transporting your seedlings to the field, first protect them from the winds. You need to avoid holding the seedlings by the stem when they are in the plastic bags. This may cause severe stem and even root damage and the plants do not establish simply in the field.
Common Pests and Diseases of Papaya Plant
The main and major diseases that affect Papaya trees are anthracnose, powdery mildew, stem rot, and damping off. Waterlogging around the roots of the plant is the main reason for rots to occur. Wettable Sulphur, carbendazim, and mancozeb are most effective and important in controlling these diseases.
Aphids, red spider mite, stem borer, fruit flies, grey weevils, and grasshoppers are the major insects attacking Papaya trees. They may destroy the infected part and spraying prophylactic spray like 0.3% dimethoate would help to control them from these insects.
Papaya Harvesting Procedure in Polyhouse
In general, Papaya takes nearly 6 months to flower and another 5 months for the harvesting process; but it may be varied according to the climate and weather conditions, and management. For shipping to the distant and other markets, the fruits must be harvested when they are apical and they start turning yellow and the latex is no longer milky. During the cold and cool months, the Papaya fruits even can be left on the tree to develop deeper color and obtain a very better flavor.
Papaya fruits can be harvested when they are of full size, light green with a tinge of yellow at the apical end of it. While ripening, Papaya fruits of certain different varieties turn yellow while some of them remain in the green. When the latex ceases to be milky and become watery, then the Papaya fruits are suitable for harvesting.
The basic economic life of the Papaya plant is nearly 3 to 4 years. The Papaya yield varies widely according to a variety of plants, soil, climate, and management of the orchard.
Commonly Asked Questions for Growing Papaya in Polyhouse
How long does a papaya tree take to fruit out?
It takes nearly 7 to 11 months to fruit.
Well-cared papaya plants may begin to produce flowers 4 months after planting and its fruit 7 to 11 months after planting. The amount of fruits produced by a single papaya plant varies with the general climate, weather conditions during the year, and plant care.
What is the average lifespan of a papaya tree?
The average lifespan is 25 years.
Papaya trees may live up to 25 years or more but the productivity of fruits declines as age grows. For very fresh fruit production as well as papain production it is best to renew the papaya plantation every 3 years.
Why do papaya trees die often?
Due to phytophthora blight, they may die.
Phytophthora is a very high destructive fungal disease that causes root, stem, and fruit rot as well as rapid wilting and death. Water-soaked areas or spots appear on the stem and, if they encircle it, the entire or total top part of the plant will wilt and die very soon. So you need to avoid damaging papaya stems.
Are papaya trees self-pollinating or not?
Papaya fruit is produced as either red-fleshed fruit from a hermaphrodite tree, which the industry label as papaya, or very large yellow-fleshed fruit from dioecious trees which the industry label is known as pawpaw. Papaya trees have multiple sources of pollination for example bees, hawkmoths, etc. and some cultivars are self-pollinating.
Should I cut off the yellow leaves of the papaya plant?
It depends on it. If you’ve got a couple of yellow leaves that look unappealing and hassle you, it’s okay to snip them off. But it is not necessary. If you’ve got tons of yellow leaves, you’re happier finding the matter and fixing it – like overwatering or not enough sunlight.