Due to a lack of financial protection, many farmers are now switching to other occupations. Farmers have a tremendous problem as a result of climate change. In India, traditional farming is practiced by more than 95% of farmers. We must employ new techniques such as greenhouse, hydroponic, and aquaponic farming if we want to make more money from agriculture.
We import a lot of fruits, vegetables, and flowers from different places in India and pay them a lot of money. We can earn a lot of money if we cultivate these flowers, vegetables, and fruits in our nation using current techniques. Thus I believe that modern practices like greenhouse farming would enhance the living standards of our Indian farmers. Let’s check out a way of earning 24 lakh from Greenhouse farming.
What is a Greenhouse?
Greenhouses are framed structures with a glass covering that is big enough to grow crops under wholly or partially controlled climatic conditions for maximum development and productivity. Greenhouse technology is a technique for supplying plants with a suitable environment.
The greenhouse is the fastest growing sector of all agricultural sectors. Consequently, greenhouses are gold mines with the most lucrative business options. The greenhouse is primarily used to produce seasonal and non-seasonal crops, create high-quality flowers and vegetables, and develop a tissue culture nursery.
What are the advantages of Greenhouse?
Depending on the kind of greenhouse, crop type, and environmental control systems, the output might be 10-12 times higher than outside farming. Crop reliability improves when grown in a greenhouse. It’s ideal for growing veggies and flowers. Floricultural crops can be grown all year. Vegetable and fruit crops are grown in the off-season. Continual production of disease-free and genetically superior transplants is possible. Efficient usage of chemicals and pesticides can be done in greenhouses. Crop water requirements are relatively low and easy to manage.
Greenhouse subsidy schemes
The horticulture department of our Indian government has granted subsidies to encourage greenhouse farming. The government provides a subsidy ranging from 50% to 60% of the greenhouse project cost. State-by-state, the subsidy proportion varies. Read the guideline NHM & NHB website for subsidy-related information, or visit the nearest government agriculture official. The following documents are necessary before applying for the subsidy.
- Certified copy of the record of rights over the piece of project land (7/12 of the property)
- Loan sanctioned letter provided by the bank with all terms and conditions
- A detailed project report
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Earning 24 lakh from Greenhouse farming
The success story of Mr. Pavan
Mr. Pavan started cultivating capsicum vegetables in the greenhouse for four years. He is from the Rangareddy district of Telangana and belongs to a family of farmers. Since childhood, he used to help his parents in agriculture gain knowledge about essential agriculture and its techniques. He is always keen to use new methods developed in various agricultural industries on his farm. However, a few years, he faced huge losses from cultivating vegetables on his farm due to climatic situations.
While going through a rough phase, one of his friends suggested heart greenhouse farming. He never knew that word until then. So he started a thorough investigation of greenhouse farming and took a year to study it. He started visiting various greenhouse farms and learned how to cultivate crops in greenhouses from their experience. He then chose to cultivate capsicums in his greenhouse in 2016. Now Mr. Pavan owns a greenhouse of 2 acres and is producing quality yield, making him earn higher profits.
Construction of Greenhouse according to Mr. Pavan
Mr. Pavan placed an order from a greenhouse construction company to build a greenhouse. To make a perfect greenhouse, it is better to get help from greenhouse construction companies rather than build it on your own. He added that it is nearly impossible to build an ideal greenhouse yourself without proper knowledge of it.
There are a variety of greenhouse-building businesses on the market. Contact them and inquire about previous firm projects and a greenhouse building rate. The cost of constructing a greenhouse ranges from Rs.700 to Rs.1000 per square metre. The price is determined by the material’s quality, size, form, transportation, and structure.
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Land preparation for cultivating capsicum in Greenhouse
Before ploughing your greenhouse, you have to add 3 trucks of animal fertilizer per acre inside the greenhouse. You have to spread this equally to every corner of the greenhouse. Mr. Pavan and this fertilizer also added 100 kgs of DAP, Fedem Phos, Magnesium sulphate of 25 kgs, Zinc Sulphate of 10 kgs, copper sulphate, iron sulfate and manganese sulfate of 10 kgs, carbofuran of 15 kgs to the soil per acre. These values can alter according to the plant you want to grow. After adding these substances in the preferred amounts, you should start ploughing.
After ploughing, you have to start creating beds, says Mr. Pavan. You have to create beds three feet wide and leave one feet gap between each bed. Before making beds, that means after ploughing, you have to add neem cake, Pungan cake of 150 kgs, biotin, Tag nona, bio Monos of 15 kgs should be added per acre in the greenhouse. These substances help prevent root damage, stop pests, and assist in the proper growth of the capsicum plant.
As capsicum crops can grow up to 10 feet in height, the stems are not strong enough to hold the fruits. You have to install the trellising system using nylon threads. These threads should be attached to the roof of the greenhouse and should be installed before you create the beds to prevent unnecessary stomping. You must trellise the capsicum plants once they attain two months of age.
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Planting of capsicum plants in Greenhouse according to Mr. Pavan
For an acre, you will be needing nearly 12,000 plants and each plant is of one month age when you buy them. The price of one capsicum plant is 10 rupees which means per acre. So you will need an investment of 1,20,000 rupees for buying plants. As Mr. Pavan is cultivating capsicum in two acres he says he invests nearly 2,40,000 rupees for buying plants. Once you get the plants, you should start planting them in soil beds and use a drip irrigation system to water your plants.
Mr. Pavan says he chose colored capsicum plants only to cultivate. While he was starting his greenhouse farm, if you are growing colored capsicums, then the government allows you more subsidies than usual. Since he saw the increase in demand from that time in colored capsicum, he chose this plant to cultivate as it is easy to manage, and also maintenance cost needed for this is less. The growth period of capsicum is nearly one year when maintained in good conditions.
These plants are ready to be harvested when they attain an age between 70 to 90 days. Any coloured capsicum develops its color from the green color itself, which means the capsicum to obtain any color first goes through the green color phase. As already mentioned, these plants are weak and need trellising. After reaching a certain height, you will also need to use stacks. Stacking is a process that involves providing stacks as a support for the plant to grow.
The first month after you start trellising, check the crops to see if they hold more weight. If you confirm this in your plants, you have to begin the stacking process immediately. TTrellising ropes and installations nearly 75,000 rupees per acre, including laborers. This means Mr. Pavan invests about 1,50,000 rupees for his two acres of capsicum cultivation on trellises and stacks. Also, you have to rotate the crop every year in greenhouses.
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Once you use capsicum crops, you have to cultivate different crops rather than growing the same crop. You can repeat the existing crop after one cycle of crop rotation. Pavan uses a machine to spray fertilizers or pesticides in his greenhouse. This machine runs with an engine and comes with a 50 meters pipe. It runs on petrol or kerosene and helps us to spray the fertilizers with ease. This sprayer motor costs nearly 20,000 rupees when included with subsidy.
Also when cultivating in a greenhouse, try to use natural fertilizers and natural insecticides. Avoiding chemicals as much as possible can help you get a better yield and make the soil better for the coming crop. Mr. Pavan started growing marigold flowers around the capsicum crops inside the greenhouse. These can help capsicum plants by protecting them from various diseases that are coming from the other farms outside the greenhouse. They take little fertilizers and other substances needed from the soil and efficiently safeguard your capsicum crops.
Marketing and profit analysis of Mr. Pavan’s farm
Per year Mr. Pavan’s farm can produce up to 80 to 120 tons of yield in two acres combined. This yield can be highly dependent on the take you take for your plants and the greenhouse. Colour capsicum has a price of 120 to 170 rupees per kg in the market. Green capsicum has a price of 35 to 65 rupees in the market. Assuming the least pricing conditions as 60 rupees per kg and the least yielding count as 50 tons, Mr. Pavan earns an income of rupees 40 lakhs for two acres.
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From this, the total investment cost is nearly eight lakhs per acre. For two acres, the entire investment cost of his greenhouse capsicum cultivation is 16 lakhs, excluding the one-time investment, which includes the construction of the greenhouse. By analyzing the following asset and income parameters, Mr. Pavan earns nearly 24 lakh rupees per year from cultivating colored and green capsicum in the greenhouse.
In this way, Mr. Pavan is now a proud owner of his 2-acre greenhouse farm and suggests young farmers take up this venture to earn high profits. He also expressed that he feels happy about the work he is doing and feels satisfied as it has always been his dream to use modern technology in agriculture.
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