Guava (Psidium guajava) is a small tropical tree or shrub belonging to the Myrtaceae family, is cultivated for its edible fruits. Guava is a hardy, long-lived tree and fruit-bearing tree. It has high commercial value. It is a very profitable business and does not require much care. Let’s check out the top 20 steps to boost your Guava fruit yield below.
Top 20 steps to boost your Guava fruit yield
Step 1: Soil required for growing Guava tree faster
Guava is a hardy plant that grows in different soil conditions. It thrives on heavy, well-drained soils. Nevertheless, it is sensitive to waterlogging. Since Guava has surface-rooted, the best soil is well-drained, deep clay soil with topsoil. The soil should have a fertile surface. It has a pH of 4.5 to 8.2. In alkaline or saline soils, Guava cannot be grown. Add lots of manure and compost to the soil and add some river sand for free drainage. This type of soil is best for fast-growing Guava trees.
Step 2: Variety selection
Some species are named based on the shape of the fruit. Allahabad Safeda, Sardar (Lucknow 49), Pant Prabhat, Lalit, Dhareedar, Chittidar, Arka Mridula, and Khaja (Bengal Safeda) are the famous Indian Guava varieties. Allahabad is one of the most popular and demanding varieties of Guava. Hafsi, Navalur, Red flesh, Seedless, Safed Jam, Kohir Safeda, Hisar Safeda, Hisar Surkha, Smooth green, Nasik, Apple color, Benaras, Lalit, Swetha, Banarsi Surkha are some other important Guava varieties.
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Step 3: Ideal climate for Guava cultivation
Successful cultivation of Guava is grown in tropical and sub-tropical climates. In areas with different winter seasons, yields increase and quality improves. It can be grown up to 1515 meters above sea level. Older plants can withstand drought. High temperatures during fruit development can cause fruit dropping. Guava trees are very hardy and can thrive on any type of soil, but are sensitive to waterlogging. The best soil for growing Guava is deep, smooth, and well-drained.
Step 4: Where to plant a Guava tree
The Guava plant needs partial shade from the full sun to grow, and it cannot tolerate too much heat. Guava plants are less tolerant of cold. Guava trees mostly grow in areas where summers are hot and winters are cold. The outside normal temperature should be between 15°C and 28°C. Guava plants grow in any soil with good drainage and full sun to produce the best flowers and fruits.
Step 5: Fertilizers for Guava crop to increase fruit size and yield
For Guava cultivation, inorganic fertilizers and organic fertilizers are very useful. Each year, give your plants 100 grams of nitrogen, 40 grams of phosphorus, and 40 grams of potassium. In the sixth year, you must be able to maintain stability. Divide them into two equal parts in August and January.
If the trees are deficient in zinc, spray 0.34 kg of lime and 0.45 kg of ZnSO4 (zinc sulfate) in 16 gallons (72.74 liters) of water on the trees. Determine how many sprays to use based on the degree of deficit. Apply 0.3% ZnSO4 and 0.4% boric acid pre-flowering spray on your Guava crop to increase fruit size and yield.
Step 6: Guava fertilizer application
If you want to grow your Guava tree fast then fertilizer is very important. The guava tree is a heavy feeder, so it must be fertilized every 1 to 2 months when it is young; then 3-4 times a year. Guava trees need fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and some magnesium to produce maximum fruit. Apply 6-6-6-2 fertilizer 3-4 times at the beginning of the growing season and then during growth.
Potassium-rich fertilizer is the best fertilizer for Guava trees to increase fruit production. Feed the Guava plants with liquid fertilizer during the growing season. Guava trees are prone to iron deficiency in alkaline and high pH soils. Fertilize 1-2 times per year with iron sulfate. To minimize the risk of burns, always water your Guava plant after fertilizing.
Step 7: Adequate spacing
Guava trees can be grown from seed and these seeds take 2 to 8 weeks to germinate. Spacing plants are usually planted at a distance of 5-8 meters. The correct planting distance is determined by variety, soil fertility, and availability of irrigation facilities. The standard interval is 6 meters x 6 meters accommodating 112 Plants per acre. Productivity can be increased by increasing the density of plants.
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In the model scheme, the interval of 6 meters x 6 meters per acre is considered with a plant population of 110 per are which was generally observed in the covered areas during the field study. Planting of high-density plants leads to direct growth of branches which makes the plant taller, more compact, and also gives higher yield/unit area in the early years of fruiting.
Step 8: Mulching improves fruit quality
Dry leaves or straws are used as mulching material. This can be done with either a black polyethylene sheet or organic material. Mulching the soil at least twice a year helps to retain moisture and improve fruit quality.
Step 9: Water your tree for plant production
You should water it 2 to 3 times a week when the tree is young. Once it matures, it will not need much water so it should suffice 2 to 3 times a month. Guava trees are sensitive to the accumulation of water, so make sure you give what you can. Guava trees are mainly rainfed. Remove weeds and grasses from the tree area as the young Guava tree cannot compete with them for water and nutrients.
Step 10: Plant protection measures
The most observed pests are fruit flies, stem borers, bark-eating caterpillars, thrips, nematodes, mealybugs, and scale insects. Spraying with malathion about 2 ml, phosphamidon (0.5 ml per liter of water), monocrotophos, dimethoate, etc., is effective in many cases. In addition, appropriate cultural practices need to be adopted and affected plants destroyed.
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The major reported diseases are wilt, fruit canker, fruit rot, anthracnose, and grey leaf spot. Depending on the type of infection, the use of Kavach / Mancozeb (2 g / L) or carbendazim / thiophanate methyl (1 g / L) is effective in controlling the disease.
Step 11: How to control pests on Guava?
There are a lot of pests that are attracted to Guava trees. The best way to combat pests is to keep the tree healthy. Provide optimal growth conditions with irrigation, proper drainage, and fertilizer application as needed, and cut off any dead or diseased limbs. Keep the area around the tree free from plant itch and weeds that can shelter insects. Keep an eye on the tree for any signs of pest damage so that proper control of Guava pests can be applied at the first sign of infection.
Step 12: Increases the plant growth and control fruit drop
Fruit drop is a serious disorder in Guava due to various physical and environmental factors which results in about 45-65% loss. GA spray is effective in reducing fruit deficiency in Guava. Guava bronzing has been observed in places where soil fertility is low and pH is low. Infected plants show purple to red spots scattered all over the leaves. In the aggravated condition, a brown pattern on the skin is noticeable with full-cut fruit and low yield.
Using 0.5% diammonium phosphate and zinc sulfate at weekly intervals of two months reduces bronze in Guava. Pre-flower sprays with 0.4% boric acid and 0.3% zinc sulfate increase yield and fruit size. Also, spraying of 0.2 to 0.4% copper sulfate increases the Guava growth and yield.
Step 13: Irrigation to increase fruit set
Guava is mostly grown in rainy conditions and irrigation is not a common practice but where irrigation is available it should be given in summer and October / November as it can be used to increase fruit set. Make sure the tree is well watered. Water daily at the time of planting and for the first month. You can reduce the water once a week once the tree is established. Avoid flood irrigation during the flowering stage as it can cause excessive flowering.
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Step 14: Increase the size of the Guava fruit
To increase yield and fruit size, pre-flower sprays with 0.4% boric acid and 0.3% zinc sulfate. Spraying of 0.2 to 0.4% copper sulfate also increases the Guava growth and yield. Plants begin to tolerate at an early age of 2 to 3 years, but they attain full tolerance at the age of 8 to 10 years.
Step 15: Training improves fruit yield
Training improves fruit quality and yield. The main purpose of the training is to provide a productive base for the tree, whose strong branches are capable of producing high-yielding crops. Twigs 30 cm or less from the ground are cut off and allow the center clear. Let the four scaffold branches grow. Keep a wide enough angle between the branches and the stem so that sunlight reaches the center.
Step 16: Pruning
Light pruning is done once a year to keep the tree structure in good condition and the emergence of new branches. If you grow Guava in the shape of a bush, you do not need to cut the lower sucker shoots. Most prefer to keep them in the shape of a tree so that they do not spread out of control. When removing sucking twigs, lower them as close to the base of the tree as possible. A light pruning of the canopy will open it up to more airflow and sunlight. Guava fruit grows on new shoots from mature wood, so be careful not to destroy all new growth.
If a tree is to be maintained to a certain height, heavy pruning should be done every other year at the end of winter to keep it within the required height. Try to leave some old wood in place. Whenever possible you should have all of these components in place to maximize profits. A single-stemmed tree with at least three or four background branches will form a nice, attractive canopy. Guava trees should be pruned as needed to remove damaged or diseased branches. Whenever pruning, use sterile scissors or loopers to prevent the spread of the disease.
Step 17: How to get more flowers in Guava
Urea has been found in Guava trees to prolong fruit production. Spray on your Guava tree before flowering in spring. Use 25% solution of straight urea mixed with the recommended amount of water.
Step 18: Guava tree bears fruit fast
Spray 5% solution of urea on your Guava tree with a moisturizing agent just before flowering. When the urea spray is dry, water the plant. Then, this will increase the fruit production duration. Guava ripens in 2-4 months after flowering. The fruit remains hard and green but changes color and becomes soft when ripe.
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Step 19: How to make a Guava tree bear fruit
- Keep your Guava in a sunny place.
- Spray Guava tree before flowering in spring.
- Apply potash or high potassium fertilizers to increase fruit production and health.
- Allow the tree to dry for 2 to 3 weeks. Apply pollen to the flowers by hand.
Step 20: Harvesting time is important for fruit yield
Depending on the Guava varieties, growers usually look for plants to bear fruit from 2-3 years of age, the majority regain their productivity at 7-10 years of age. Consider the ripeness of the fruit with their color and then decide if they are ripe enough for harvesting. Plants begin to tolerate at an early age of 2-3 years, but they attain full tolerance at the age of 8-10 years.
The plant yield depends on its age, crop style, and cultural practices. A 10-year-old plant yields about 100 to 150 kg of fruit every year. Higher yields can be obtained in the rainy season if both rain and cold season crops are harvested.
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