Mango seed germination process: Mango (Mangifera indica) is a healthy and delicious fruit that can be added to any salad, smoothie and also rice dish. Mangoes are perennials that can be found in hot climates that are humid or dry, all over the world. In many of these places, Mango fruit is an important part of the population’s diet.
A guide to mango seed germination process
Mango trees are the easiest trees to start from seed. Mangoes can be grown from seeds and also from grafting. Mango plants from the garden nursery are generally grafted and will fruit within 3 to 4 years. Mango trees grown from seeds could take longer, 5 years. However, mango grown from a polyembryonic variety like Kensington Pride can produce fruits in just 2 to 3 years. In this article we also discussed below topics;
- Germinate a mango seed in water
- Mango seed germination time
- Grow mango seed in water
- Growing mango tree from seed
- The time required for a mango seed to germinate
- How to grow a mango seed fast
- Tips for growing mango tree
- How to germinate mango seeds indoors
- Mango seed germination temperature
- Germinate mango seed in a paper towel
Types of seeds in Mangoes
Different mangoes produce different types of seeds. What type of fruit germinated and planted seed produces depends entirely on the type of seed you planted. There are two basic types of mangoes are Indian and Indochinese. Although both are similar in looks of the tree and requirements for proper fruit growth, the type of tree you get from a germinated seed is dependent on which of the two types of mangoes you planted.
The differences in the two types of seeds contain;
Indian Mangoes – Seeds are monoembryonic, which means due to hybrid crossing, the seedlings won’t essentially resemble the parent tree. The mango fruit can be equal, superior or not as good as the mangoes from the parent tree.
Indochinese Mangoes – Seeds are polyembryonic, this means seedlings are exact replicas of the parent tree and the fruit will be of the same quality. One seed can make several seedlings.
Soil and light requirement for growing mango from seed
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The light requirement for mango seed germination
Mango seedlings need bright light but not direct sunlight. Once the mango plant starts to grow, give it as much light as possible, including moving it outside if possible. It needs at least 6 hours of sun per day and preferably 8 to 10 hours. It is best if you can place it in a south-facing area. In the winter, you might need to give a grow light.
Soil requirement for mango seed germination
A rich, peat-based potting soil with good drainage is beneficial. If planting a mango in the garden, make sure it is in soil that can dry out slightly between watering.
Water plant regularly, several times a week in dry weather, but do not leave the plant to sit with “wet feet” in soggy soil. The mango plant thrives in periods of alternating wet and dry. Seeds need regular moisture to sprout.
Preparing mango seed for germination
Once you have your ripe mango, then it’s time to prepare your seed and plant. Clean all the flesh off the fresh mango seed and do not allow the seed to dry out.
By using a sharp knife carefully cut around the edge of the seed’s husk, revealing the inside, kidney-shaped kernel, and being sure not to nick the kernel. The husk must pop open.
Fill a 3-gallon or 11-liter container with a well-drained potting mix. Make sure that the container has bottom drainage to prevent the seed from rotting. Then water the container’s soil to allow it to settle.
Make an indentation in the center of the container and plant the mango seed, pointy side down. Allow the hump at the top to stick out of the soil about 1/4 inches. And water the soil again. Put the container in a partially sunny and warm location and water when the top inch of the container’s soil feels dry.
Mango seed germination
Mango seeds will germinate in 2 to 4 weeks. Then, it will take at least 5 years for the seeds to grow into a mature tree that produces fruit.
Mango seeds germinated at a temperature range between 5 and 40°C, but germination was most rapid near the upper end of this range (25-40°C). The fresh seeds had high moisture content (85%, dry weight basis) and quickly died on dehydration. The optimal temperature for the growth of the seedlings was 30°C. High temperatures (40°C) and temperatures below 15°C were lethal. And the growth of the stem occurred in successive flushes separated by rest periods. When the plant leaves of the preceding flush finished growing, the axis lengthened beneath the apical bud.
Method for preparing the mango seed
Choose a method for preparing the mango seed. You can use the drying method or the soaking method. The soaking method reduces germination time by 1 to 2 weeks but increases the risk of mold.
Dry the mango seed
Dry the mango seed thoroughly with a paper towel – Place it in a sunny and airy dry place for about 3 weeks. After these times, with one hand, try to crack open the seed, trying not to let it slip in half; you just want to slightly separate the two halves, and leave for another week.
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Place fertile and well-drained soil in a container. Dig a small hole approximately 20cm or 8 inches deep. With the belly button of the mango seed face down, push the seed in. Water in well, and keep the water up every day, or every other day, depending on the soil. After around 4 to 6 weeks, you will have a mango tree or seedling about 100mm to 200mm high. Depending on the variety of mango you earlier devoured, it can be a deep purple, almost black, or a bright vibrant green. Grow the seedling until it has established an excellent, healthy root system. Many people grow mango trees indoors for 1 to 2 years before planting them outside.
Soaking the mango seed
This alternative to the drying method is one to two weeks faster. There is a higher risk of mold, so you could not want to try this if you only have one seed.
Scarify the seed – To “scarify” is to slightly abrade the outside of the seed, making it very easy for the seed to germinate. Make a small cut in the seed with sandpaper or steel wool just enough to break through the outer skin of the seed.
Soak the seed – Place the mango seed in a small jar of water, then place the jar in a warm place such as a cupboard. Soak the seed for about 24 hours.
Then remove the seed from the jar and wrap it in damp paper towels. Put the wrapped seed inside a plastic bag with one corner cut off. Keep the towels moist and wait for the seed to sprout and it usually takes 1 to 2 weeks. Make sure to keep the seed in a warm, moist place to help it seed germinate.
Prepare a pot for the seedling – Start seedling’s growth in a pot. Choose one big enough to hold the seed and fill it with a mixture of both potting soil and compost. Plant the seed directly in the ground, but plant seed in a pot first allows you to control temperature exposure during the vulnerable early stage of growth.
Sun harden the seedling – Then place the pot outside in the partial sun; this could allow the seedling to get used to the sun, or harden, before being transplanted to its final place in the full sun.
Plant a mango seed
Once you’re sure that you live in the right environment for mango trees and you have the time and resources to look after them, then you might consider growing mango trees in your garden or on the front lawn. If you want to plant a mango tree, you will require a mango seed, which you can buy at a local gardening store.
The first step in planting a mango tree is to have enough space to do so. Mango trees are very large and can grow up to 90 feet tall. Additionally, their canopy can be 80 feet wide with plant leaves over a foot long. Because of this, mango trees want plenty of space to grow. Don’t place them near other plants or structures that could get in the way. If you plan on growing several trees or an entire grove, then they will want to be grown in rows. There must be 25 feet on average between each row, and between 10 and 15 feet between each area where you plant the seeds.
Paper towel germination method for growing mango
This is a bit of a combination of the two mango growing methods. It involves placing the seed in a bowl of water in a warm place for 24 hours. After this soaking time, you wrap the seed in moist paper towels and place this package in a Ziploc bag or a container. Leave a little opening for fresh air to pass through and place the mango seed in a warm, light place to germinate. And don’t forget to re-moisten the paper towels regularly.
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The mango seed will germinate in a few weeks. Then you will see that the seed will sprout into several seedlings, all identical to each other (except one) and to the parent tree. They are the clones. Usually, the centrally-located shoot which is the most vigorous shoot than all the other shoots is different and must be removed.
When the seedlings are about 4 to 5 inches tall, cut all but one of the seedlings to grow to a mango tree. You could separate each seedling and grow them all to have many mango trees. Or, you can split open a mango seed and take out small bean-shaped seeds. You can plant them individually to obtain many trees.
Germinating mango seed in water
- Rub the outside of the mango seed by sandpaper or knife to break the outer skin of the seed.
- Put the seed in water in a bowl and locate it in a warm place for 24 hours.
- Remove the seed wrap it in damp paper towels and place the wrapped seed inside a plastic bag or zip lock bag, keeping some opening for air.
- Place the bag in a warm place, and keep the bag damp. The mango seed will sprout in 1 to 3 weeks.
Process of germination to mango fruit
Your mango seed should germinate in anywhere from 2 to 3 weeks. Starting it off in a larger container means the germinated seed can continue developing into a decent size seedling before it needs repotting or planting in the ground. Once the mango seedling is about 2 to 4 feet tall, its root system is developed enough to be planted into the landscape.
Trees grown from mango seeds won’t start flowering and producing fruit until they are around 6 years of age. However, it takes 10 years for the mango tree to produce to its full potential.
Sprout a mango from seed
Once you’ve eaten your mango fruit, you’re going to want to clean as much of the remaining fiber and pulp from the seed. Then mango seed dries out a bit for about a day and a half. Remove the hard woody outer shell from the mango seed. If you look at the side of the mango seed, you will see a ridge. Sticking a knife into this ridge and prying the 2 halves apart is the easiest way to remove the outer shell.
One side of the seed core will be more rounded than the other. Then place the seed, rounded side up, in a dish of water. The dish must be placed on a windowsill in a warm, sunny place. Leave the mango seed in the water until it starts to sprout. This can take from 1 to 3 weeks. When the mango seed has sprouted, plant the mango seed in a peat pot until it grows strong enough to be transplanted outdoors.
Common pests and diseases in mango trees
Mango plants may suffer from some common insect pests, including mealy bugs, aphids, and mites. Signs of infestation contain tiny webs on plants, clumps of white powdery residue, or visible insects on the plant. Treat infestations as soon as possible to prevent them from spreading to the rest of the collection. Always start with the least toxic treatment option first, progressing to more serious chemicals if your initial efforts fail.
Mango trees are susceptible to anthracnose, a fungal disease causing black lesions that gradually spread. Seriously infected mango trees stop producing fruit. The best disease preventive measure is to plant a resistant variety in full sun where moisture will quickly evaporate. Extreme humidity fosters anthracnose and fungal diseases. Copper-based fungicides can be effective against anthracnose disease on mango plants, but should not be used within 14 days of planned fruit harvest.
The fruit takes 3 to 5 months to ripen after the tree has flowered. The color of the ripe fruit mainly depends on the variety. One way to test for whether the fruit is ready to pick is to give it a sniff and see if it has a sweet scent. If you pick unripe mango fruit, you can place it in a paper bag to ripen it further over several days. Immature fruit is used to make pickled mango.