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How to Start Home Gardening in Punjab from Scratch: For Indoors, Outdoors, Terrace, and Apartment Balcony

Home gardens are everywhere now. Due to its many advantages, people are turning towards home gardens. It has already become a part of many houses in many huge cities of India. Punjab is one such state in north India that includes many huge cities, and people need home gardening knowledge. This article is just for them. Huge cities in Punjab include Ludhiana,  Chandigarh,  Amritsar, Bathinda, Patiala, Jalandhar, Sahibzada, Kapurthala, Moga, Malerkotla, Barnala, Khanna, Batala, Abohar, Hoshiarpur, Hoshiarpur, Rajpura, Phagwara, Firozpur, Jalandhar, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar, Sunam, Gurdaspur, Zirakpur, Mukerian, and Jalalabad.

How to Start Home Gardening in Punjab from Scratch
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Below we will learn home gardening in Punjab, how to set up a home garden in Punjab, how to set up a backyard garden in Punjab, how to set up a terrace and balcony garden in Punjab, and different vegetables, flowers, fruits, and herbs that can be grown in Punjab home gardens.

How to start home gardening in Punjab from scratch

Choose the type of home garden

Backyard gardening/outdoor gardening 
First, choose an ideal garden site in your backyard

Even for urban gardeners with few options, a garden’s success depends significantly on its location. The ideal site has deep, well-drained soil rich in organic matter and gets direct sunlight for most of the day. The location must be adjacent to an available water source to avoid the possibility of shadow. It is challenging to raise beds if the soil comprises thick clay and inadequate drainage. To build a raised bed, you can use cinder blocks, recycled railroad ties, and landscape timbers. 

Prepare the soil in your backyard 

Few locations are appropriate for growing vegetables because rich, fertile soil is lacking. Because of this, the soils must be altered to increase drainage and airflow. Organic materials or sand can help with heavy clay soil. A layer of high-quality sand and organic matter should be spread over the garden site’s surface, then turned over in the fall or early spring to improve the soil’s physical qualities.

Instead of preparing the soil in one or two seasons, concentrate on improving its condition over time. Regularly add composted organic material, such as peanut, rice husks, or grass clippings. Aim for 8-10 inches of depth if you turn the soil. Adding gypsum to soil improves its structure and drainage. Add 2 to 3 kgs of gypsum per hundred square feet when dealing with clay soil. Clay soil is hard to work with.

When enriching a garden with organic materials or sand, take steps to avoid nematodes. Avoid working with wet garden soil at all costs. Squish some soil together in your hand to test the soil’s ability to be worked. It is too wet to handle if the material can be formed into a ball without breaking apart under minimal pressure from the finger and thumb.

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In well-prepared soil, seeds germinate more easily than in poorly prepared soil. The effort necessary to plant and maintain a crop is greatly decreased when adequate preparation has been made. In contrast, certain soils can be prepared excessively. Planting in granular soil rather than fine powdery soil is ideal.

Plant your backyard garden 

Planting your garden early in the spring and fall helps ensure that your plants have the finest possible conditions to flourish as they develop and mature. Plants transplanted as soon as they are ready might have their harvest dates moved forward and have their productive periods prolonged plant directly in situations where transplanting would be difficult or impossible. Covering the seed 2 to 3 times its length is ideal when planting. In the case of plants with big seeds (such as green beans, watermelons, and cantaloupes), it’s especially significant.

Carrots, lettuce, and onions need a planting depth of 1/4 to 1/2 inches. With this in mind, plant the seeds in a tightly packed area to ultimately thin them out. When relocating plants, it is essential to avoid planting them either too deeply or too shallowly. Roots can die from severe dryness if containers are planted too shallowly. Certain plants can be transported bare-root, and others need to be transplanted into pots. Before transplanting any plants, particularly those that need a lot of heat, like tomatoes and chilies, use a starting solution.

Water your backyard garden carefully.

Are you unsure of the best way to water your plant in the backyard? The soil must be sufficiently moistened so that water can penetrate at least 15 cm into the ground (6 inches). Most gardens need around one inch of rain each week during the growing season to produce the most fruit. Sandier, lighter soils may need more watering than heavier, darker soils. If you intend on using sprinklers to water the plants, it is better to do it in the morning. This will allow the leaves to have enough time to dry before it gets dark. 

Mulch your backyard garden

There are several benefits to mulching, including avoiding the growth of weeds, controlling the temperature, and lowering losses due to rot. Some items used to make organic mulches include shredded bark and sawdust. After a crop is harvested, organic mulch improves soil tilth, aeration, and drainage. Even though the amount of organic matter that should be used varies depending on the kind, it should be adequate to distribute a layer of one to two inches thick all over the surface around plants that are actively growing.

To prepare the soil for subsequent crops, you should apply an additional half kg of fertilizer per 100 square feet while rotating organic mulches underneath. Nitrogen loss from organic material degradation by soil microbes can be reduced by increasing the activity of soil microorganisms.

Manage pests and diseases in your backyard garden 

Use just those pesticides that have been approved and spray with care if necessary. Pesticides should only be used on plants for which they are mainly designed. Pesticide labels should be properly read and followed. Disease prevention is the primary goal of disease management rather than treatment. When sickness symptoms emerge, it may be too late; the damage has already occurred.

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Many diseases are widespread in crops, and gardeners must be aware of environmental conditions that can help or hinder these diseases. A broad range of microbes thrives in gardens because of the cool, moist climate. When the atmosphere is conducive to the diseases, look for signs and provide appropriate therapy.

Balcony gardening/indoor gardening 
Plan your balcony garden 

Before you start your balcony garden, make a detailed plan of everything that will go into it. Many plants can be found at your local nursery or in your area to use in your balcony garden. To begin your balcony garden, you must first get permission from the building’s administration. Having a garden on your balcony is not permitted in every unit. A balcony garden’s primary benefit is security. Make sure your balcony can support your garden or plants.

Consider the following planing your balcony garden 

Sunlight: What is the orientation of your balcony? It’s better to have balconies that face south, but those that face southeast or southwest will do well, too. Even if your windows are facing north, you can grow plants when gardening. Shade-loving cultivars can be grown by simply changing the kinds you plant.

Shade: Going out on your balcony at different times of day will allow you to observe how the shadows fall and how much light is coming in before you start planting. Often, you’ll put up a balcony garden only to discover that you’ve placed your plants in a shadowed location for 80 percent of the day.

Wind: Balcony gardens have a greater risk of wind damage than ground-based plantings like raised beds or containers. Roses and other wind-resistant plants are an excellent place to start. Another approach is to stake your plants properly and use windscreens to block gusts. Observe the wind direction and strength by going outside a few times throughout the day, as you would check the shade on your balcony. Use terra-cotta pots if there is a lot of wind in your area.

Deal with the drainage 

Most balconies have drainage holes or slopes, so water flows in one direction. Gardening on a balcony can be a nuisance, so ensure you don’t shower filthy water on your neighbors. Balcony rain barrels provide additional points for conservation if you live in a region that experiences frequent rainfall. Doing this can save a lot of runoff and use fresh rainwater to water your garden instead of municipal water, which is always better.

Choose the right containers for your balcony 

Using containers to produce food on a balcony is the most common drawback, but it’s not the only one. If you’re using terra-cotta pots, they’ll dry out soon. Choose the biggest containers you can find to combat this and provide your plants with the even watering they need. Choosing bigger self-watering containers is a step up from just using larger containers.

Your plants’ roots will have a steady supply of water thanks to the draining action of these pots. Self-watering pots in this size range can be found at most nurseries and retailers in Punjab. You’ll save money in the long run by not having to water your plants as often manually.

Choose seedlings 

Buying seedlings from a nursery and transplanting them into your garden can help it get off to a good start. Growing your plants from seeds is a rewarding experience for anybody interested in honing their gardening skills. However, if you’re a novice gardener needing a quick start, consider purchasing seeds from a nearby nursery.

Plant your balcony garden 

Now that you know how many plants will fit in the planter, it’s time to start arranging them within the container. As a result, a little space should be left between the container’s rim and the soil. A half-inch separation is acceptable when dealing with smaller containers, while larger containers need one or two inches. This is known as “headspace,” and it serves two purposes: first, it keeps the soil in the pot from washing out, and second, it directs water into the container. The water would spill out of the container’s top without enough headroom.

To make the plants in the planter look their best, add some potting soil and then begin arranging them. Plants need at least a one- to the two-centimeter gap between their root system and the container’s edge. Because of this, the plant will have room to spread its roots in all directions. After that, all that is left to do is rearrange the plants in the planter so that each plant has some room of its own within the overall confines of the planter.

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Water your balcony plants 

Fruits, vegetables, and other plants need water to survive, and this is especially true in the hot summers of Punjab. It’s possible to spend days without watering your plants, even if it’s a regular occurrence. Insert your finger about an inch and a half into the soil before you wet your plant. If the soil is dry, it is essential to water the plants.

Using a narrow-necked glass bottle, fill it with water, and then insert the bottle’s neck into the ground; you may keep the water cool while you’re away from home. Watering your plants will be delayed by up to two days. As a result, allowing you more time between sessions—is a great method to use those hard-to-recycle glass bottles, too.

Deal with pests and diseases in your balcony garden 

There are various diseases from which container gardening can help protect your plants, yet there is one sickness from which it cannot: bugs! It is common for beneficial insects, such as lady beetles, and lacewings, to suppress pest numbers in their native habitats. A balcony makes it more challenging for pests to locate your plants.

However, mosquitoes and other pests will be able to find it with ease! Instead of using pesticides, try crushing, removing, or soaking in soapy water to get rid of bugs by hand wherever possible. Pests that infect containers can be effectively treated using horticultural oil.

Terrace gardening 
Consider terrace capacity 

You will need to decide on the maximum load your roof can bear. The load-bearing capability of your roof will determine how much soil, decking, people, and plants weigh and where those things are put on your roof. Think about using some of these strategies to lighten the strain on your roof: Pre-mixed planting soils sold at your local garden center often include a mixture of peat moss, compost, or other organic matter and vermiculite or perlite.

Organic and inorganic substances can be added to the soil to lighten their weight. For heavier objects, plan to place them near the building’s bearing walls, pillars, and shear walls, supported by footings below. Establishing certain hours for classes or activities allows you to exercise control over the quantity of usage and activities on your rooftop garden.

Waterproof your terrace 

You must get your terrace waterproofed to grow a garden there. On a concrete surface, a waterproofing polymer coating can readily be applied. However, concrete is the substrate for the application of this coating. Homeowners can design a small terrace garden after applying a waterproof polymer covering.

A fiber-optic network is used for large terrace structures. Polymer coating layers sandwich this net, making it very light and breathable. The water-proofing process is the same as it was before. In this case, however, after the first layer of the polymer coating is applied, the fiber net is placed, and the second layer of the polymer coating is applied on top. Installing a fiber-optic network on a large terrace is required. Structures can be strengthened and reinforced by installing fiber nets.

Make sure of drainage on the terrace 

Another top objective is ensuring that the drainage system has maintained unobstructed access. This objective can be accomplished on green roofs by preserving a gravel ring and a layer of filter cloth surrounding roof drains and overflow scuppers. Ensure deck strapping or containers don’t obstruct the drains on terrace gardens. Keep an eye on the water flow on your roof, figure out where it goes, and then make sure those regions and drainage channels are well maintained.

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Directing rainwater to planted areas or reservoirs where plants can use it as required is one way to get the most out of a terraced green roof’s rainfall. Check to see if the layout of your roof can tolerate water collecting on it. You may need to build a drainage layer over the roofing layer to prevent water pools from plant watering.

Consider the following 

The size of your house and its closeness to neighboring buildings might affect your terrace garden’s light and wind exposure. Determine the amount of wind and sun that blows over your roof, and then choose resilient plants that can thrive in the environment your rooftop garden creates. Most plants can thrive on a roof if they have enough soil to support themselves and thrive. On some roofs, however, the depth of the soil can be a concern that must be considered.

Be sure to examine the needed soil depth for the trees, shrubs, and wildflowers you want to grow on your terrace. Planning for summertime watering is important, especially during the hotter months is essential. The garden and plants in your home need the most excellent care over the summer. Access to a terrace garden, water, and maintenance materials is essential. If it is difficult to put a hose or an irrigation system on your terrace, you may want to consider creating a landscape garden instead. This garden uses plant species that have evolved to thrive in arid environments.

Choose the right plants    

There is a significant difference between gardening at ground level and gardening on a roof. Terraces feature distinct and frequently intense microclimates in Punjab. If your terrace gets plenty of light and wind, you’ll need to water more often. Consider these variables and choose your plants accordingly.

Soil preparation for terrace garden 

Terrace gardens typically employ different soil types depending on what they’ll be growing. It’s essential to think about the demands of your flowers while combining your soil, fertilizer, and other additions if you want an aesthetic garden rather than a functional one. Decomposed moss and other components make up peat moss. A similar process to composting provides additional nutrients that would otherwise be unavailable to your crop. Peat moss helps keep your soil combination wet no matter how often you water.

An earthworm’s excrement is mixed with decaying plants and a little natural soil to make light compost soil. Adding natural resources into your new garden allows you to reuse nutrients previously used in a kitchen elsewhere. Using this compost will give your garden a nutritious boost and ensure its health throughout the growing season.

Vermiculite, like fertilizer, has a similar makeup, but the two aren’t the same. Vermiculite is an excellent soil alternative for your rooftop garden. It doesn’t matter what the makeup of the soil is where you live; this product, when used in addition to peat moss and compost, will ensure the success of your vegetable and fruit gardening endeavors. The air-to-water ratio in vermiculite also aids in the quicker growth of your product than would otherwise be the case.

Your terrace garden will flourish after you’ve gathered all the necessary items. You can put your compost, peat moss, and vermiculite in a container. Incorporate the additions into the mix until they are well mixed. You can use your hands or a gardening fork to do this. Plant your seedlings or growths at a reasonable distance from each other.

Water your terrace garden 

A terrace garden’s watering needs aren’t all that different from a traditional garden on a flat surface. When watering your plants, you’ll need to consider each kind’s specific demands. On the other hand, be certain that the waterproofing layer of your terrace garden and the drainage tarps have been securely set. You can have a flooded garden and a damaged roof if you don’t have these.

Keep your terrace garden’s soil wet at all times. If it has recently rained, walk up to the garden and examine the soil’s consistency before adding more water. However, keep in mind that each garden’s requirements are unique. A good rule of thumb is to find out what your plants appreciate before sticking to a watering schedule.

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Best vegetables for Punjab home gardens

Tomatoes, potatoes, chilies, okra, lettuce, beans, eggplants, peas, bottle gourd, ivy gourd, cucumber, carrots, radishes, onion, spinach, and bitter gourd are among many vegetables that can be grown in Punjab home gardens.

Best fruits for Punjab home gardens

Guava, custard apple, papaya, pineapples, mango, pomegranate, sapota, banana, mulberry, Indian gooseberry, and figs are among the many fruits grown in Punjab home gardens.

Best flowers for Punjab home gardens

Jasmines, chrysanthemums, hibiscus, lilies, roses, daisies, dahlias, marigolds, and gerberas are among the many flowers that can be grown in Punjab home gardens.

Best herbs for Punjab home gardens

Cilantro, mint, fennel, basil, chives, coriander, and oregano are among the many herbs that can be grown in Punjab home gardens.


As previously said, starting a home garden on a terrace, balcony, or backyard is simple. You just should have the patience and should make constant efforts to make your home gardens grow fruitfully. Following the above principle, you can employ a successful home garden in your residence in Punjab.


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