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Growing Vegetables At Home – A Full Guide

Growing Vegetables At Home

Growing your vegetables at home is rewarding, healthy, and fun. Homegrown vegetables change our lifestyle and also the environment for the better. The first step in planning a vegetable garden at home is to decide what to plant in your garden. It is always best to start a small vegetable garden and work your way up as you gain knowledge. Some easy to grow vegetables at home in India can keep you active and healthy. Many vegetables do well in containers. A container vegetable garden also puts the harvest process easy and keeping fresh flavors at hand. In this content we also discuss the following topics;

  • Top vegetables for containers
  • The best vegetables to grow in pots all-round the year
  • Vegetables to grow in pots for beginners
  • Growing vegetables at home in pots
  • The best vegetables to grow at home
  • Growing plentiful container vegetable garden

A Step by Step Guide to Growing Vegetables At Home

Type of Soil Used in Pots for Growing Vegetables at Home

The best soil mix for container-grown vegetables is well-drained, well-aerated, and a pH level that is close to neutral. For large pots that may need to be moved, select soilless mixes since they are light. While vegetables aren’t fussy about the pot they’re in, they do need a potting mix that will allow water to drain well. Vegetable plants will do best in potting mixes made for containers and fill the containers so the soil is at least 2 to 3 inches below the rim. Water the soil just before planting.

First, prepare your soil for growing vegetables. Soil helps to transmit nutrients to your plants. As a result, it has a significant impact on the health and vigor of your vegetable plants.

Soil mixture for growing vegetables;

  • 30% of cattle manure
  • 10% of NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium)
  • 10% bone meal fertilizer
  • 50% good soil

If the soil is too dense, and then add some river sand to loosen it up. Now that your soil is prepped, it’s time to get your vegetable garden started.

Pick Sunny Spot for Growing Vegetables at Home

Growing Vegetables at Home
Growing Vegetables at Home (Pic source: Pixabay)

Like all plants, vegetable plants need the sun to kick-start photosynthesis. This process transforms light energy into glucose, which plants use to make substances like cellulose (for building cell walls) and starch (a food source). The fastest-growing vegetables need full sun means at least 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight a day. That’s why you won’t have much success if you plant sun-loving vegetable plants in shady spaces.

Most vegetables need 4-6 hours of direct sunlight. Vegetables grow well in locations that receive a minimum of 6 hours of light. For a location that receives about 4 hours or less, salad greens can be an option. For growing vegetables, container gardening is the easiest way to start. With containers, the vegetable garden can be set up on the balconies or rooftops. Generally, south and west-facing balconies get the most sun, followed by east facing. Fruiting plants like tomatoes and eggplants can be planted in the south or west-facing balconies. Root vegetables such as carrots, radishes, and beets might also work if your site gets at least 4 hours of direct sunlight a day. Or if you have a sunny patio, switch to container vegetable gardening.

Provide Plenty of Water to Your Container Grown Vegetables

Choose a location for the container vegetable garden that is close to a water source. This makes it easy to water vegetable plants daily. Properly watering the vegetable plants can make all the difference in the growing process. As vegetables grow and roots fill the soil, plants require more water to stay healthy and yield a harvest. Then, you’ll want to check the soil daily, and water whenever the top inch becomes dry.

Watering wisely is key to garden success, especially in warm and dry regions. During the first few weeks after seeds germinate or seedlings are transplanted, frequent watering keeps vegetable plants strong and healthy. Then the water will move deeper into the soil, which encourages plant roots to grow deeper, where they’re better protected and better able to access nutrients they need to stay healthy. Factor in your weather conditions and the composition of soil to determine when you should water. Clay soil dries out slowly than sandy soil. Sunny, windy conditions dry out the soil quickly than cool, cloudy weather.

Start With a Small Vegetable Garden

If you are growing vegetables for the first time gardener, start a small garden is a key to success. A good size vegetable garden for beginners is 10×10 feet, about the size of a small bedroom. Keep it simple and select up to five types of vegetables to grow, and plant a few of each type. If 10×10 feet seems intimidating, you can go smaller or consider growing vegetable plants in pots or containers. With them you don’t even need a backyard; a sunny deck or balcony works fine.

Best Vegetables for Containers

  • The best vegetables for containers are Potatoes, Bush and Cherry Tomatoes, Chard, Lettuce, Peppers, Eggplants, Summer Squash, and Pole Beans.
  • The size of the garden can be based on the number of different vegetable plants one is thinking of growing.
  • For leafy greens and salads, one square foot, or a container that is 12 inches diameter and 10-12 inches height, is recommended. This can grow about 3-4 plants.
  • For bigger plants such as tomatoes, chilies, and brinjals, a single plant may be planted in a pot/container that is 12 inches in diameter and 12 inches in height. The volume of potting mix required is 15 to 20 liters.
  • One of the popular choices for containers is Terracotta, which is very eco-friendly. If plant weight is an issue, these can be replaced with a plastic or wooden planter box.
  • Keep drainage in mind while selecting a container for growing vegetables. The container must have at least one drainage hole to easily drain out the water.

Identifying Pests in Vegetable Plants at home

Everyone loves a nice vegetable garden and so identifying pests is very important. Daily scouting in the garden, looking for holes or cuts in the leaves can help to identify pests. The most common pests in vegetable plants are aphids, mealy bugs, mites, and worms.

Most pests in the vegetable garden can be controlled by using Neem oil spray. For this, mix 10 ml of Neem oil with 1 liter of water and to this, add 5 ml of liquid dish-washing soap and mix well. This spray has to be applied weekly only, on both sides of the plant leaves.

Tips to Protect Your Vegetable Plants against Pests;

  • Practicing proper sanitation is one of the leading ways to keep your vegetable garden both disease and pest free.
  • When you find harmful insects in your vegetable garden, the best way to deter them is to invite good insects into it.
  • There are certain bugs in your vegetable garden you will be able to see easily. Bugs like slugs, Japanese Beetles, cabbage worms, and squash bugs must be visible. When you see them, pick them off your plants and remove them from your vegetable garden.
  • If you are trying to grow a garden organically, you might want to try some natural options. You can spray garlic spray, mineral oil, or salt spray on your vegetable plants to deter pests.
  • It is important to mulch around the base of your vegetable plants. Mulch will keep dirt from getting on the stem of vegetable plants when being watered. It will also help to retain the necessary moisture for each plant to keep it well-watered.

Best Vegetables for Growing At Home


  • Chilli plants like growing in containers at home where the temperature can be easily regulated.
  • Choosing the right pot is an important element of growing a Chilli plant to its full capacity. A pot that is about 12 inches deep with proper drainage holes would be ideal for growing Chillies.
  • Water daily till the plant flowers and reduce the frequency of watering after flowering happens. Harvest fresh Chillies when fruited.
  • Indoor growing Chilli plants can be treated as perennial houseplants and will need a good prune in the winter months.


  • Growing tomatoes in containers are easy at home. Most tomato varieties also are happiest in big containers and will need staking or a tomato cage. This support keeps the heavy tomatoes from bending and breaking the vines.
  • Tomatoes require at least 6 to 8 hours of sun a day to thrive.
  • The pot size must match the size of the plant. For tomatoes specifically, it’s better to go for bigger and deeper containers.
  • The ideal pot size is the 18-inch diameter for determinate tomato varieties and a 24-inch diameter for indeterminate tomato varieties. In container growing, the type of container you choose can make or break your plant before it even begins to grow.
  • A potting mix will provide tomato plants with better air circulation and water flow.

Eggplant or Brinjal

  • For growing Brinjal use a pot that is at least 12 inches deep in size for each plant.
  • Growing Brinjal in pots is mainly in two ways. Start by using seeds or buy the seedlings from a nearby nursery or garden center.
  • The Eggplants need a lot of nutrients for growth and a neutral or slightly acidic soil in pH. Use soil that is rich in nutrients and most preferably loamy soilless potting mix.
  • Brinjal love to grow in evenly moist soil and make sure the drainage is good to avoid root rot. Then, take care not to saturate the soil with too much water making it soggy.
  • Brinjal plants love heat and clay pots retain heat better than plastic. Choose an unglazed pot if you can remember to water your plants frequently, but go with a glazed pot if you have a history of forgetting to water your plants.

Bush Beans

  • Bush beans are by far the most popular beans for home gardeners and easily grown in pots.
  • For bush beans, select a large window box or a pot that’s at least 15 inches in diameter. Just plant, and in 7 to 8 weeks, you’ll have a tasty crop that’s ready to pick and eat.
  • Plant bush beans every 2 weeks, and you’ll have fresh beans on your table all summer long, with plenty to freeze or can for winter.


  • Radishes are one of the fastest-growing vegetable plants. Choose large pots or other containers that will retain plenty of moisture but with room for drainage at the bottom.
  • Growing radishes at home need a good amount of sunlight to sustain fast growth and root production. Prepare to provide your radishes with at least 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight daily.


  • Coriander or Cilantro is a versatile herb used in a variety of dishes. It can be easily grown in a pot or a backyard. Seeds work best for growing Coriander as they germinate in 7 to 10 days.
  • For growing Coriander in a pot, choose one that is 18 inches wide and at least 10-12 inches deep, this would be a perfect size.


  • Potatoes are one of the easiest vegetable plants to grow at home.
  • Large pots and planters are ideal for growing potatoes at home.
  • Choose a container for growing Potatoes that is at least 16 inches in diameter and 16 inches high. You can plant about 4 to 6 seed potatoes in this sized container.

Easy to grow vegetable plants for beginners are Pumpkin, Basil, Spinach, Squash, Peppers, Onion, Cucumber, Peas, and Beets.

Growing Vegetables at Home without Seeds

There are some vegetable plants that you can “regrow.” It sounds a little bit like magic, but essentially you are resprouting these vegetable plants. E.g., the butt end of a lettuce head can be planted shallowly and resprouted means it will grow new leaves. The same can be done with celery, potatoes, sweet potatoes, fennel, ginger, and lemongrass.

You can plant bean sprouts and they will produce bean plants. You can plant garlic cloves or onion hearts and they will reroot and grow. You can do stem cuttings from plants like cilantro and basil they will root at the nodes and grow.

Some of the vegetables grown without seeds are;

  • You can grow scallions from their discarded plant roots. Growing scallions from their roots are arguably the easiest vegetable plant to regrow.
  • Growing Garlic sprouts from a garlic clove.
  • You can grow Romaine Lettuce from the bottom of a lettuce head.
  • Growing Carrot greens from discarded carrot tops.
  • Growing new Basil from basil cuttings.
  • A Sweet Potato will sprout vines eventually grow new Sweet Potatoes.
  • Lemongrass can grow from its discarded roots.
  • The celery plant can grow from a leftover Celery bottom.
  • Onions can produce from the root end of an onion.
  • Bok choy plant can grow from Bok choy scraps.

Vegetable Harvesting Tips at Home

Pick your vegetable plants as soon as they reach a size where you will enjoy them. Most vegetable plants are more productive if you harvest early and often. Letting plants “go to seed” will cause a drop in the fruit set. And when harvesting anything except root crops, it’s a good idea to use pruners, scissors, and a knife to remove what you need; if you try to pull off leaves, you risk damaging the plant and even uprooting it from the container.

Almost all vegetable plants are best when harvested early in the morning. Overnight, vegetable plants regain the moisture that they lost during the day, and starches formed during the day can be converted to sugars during the evening. These traits make morning-harvested plants produce crisper, juicier, and sweeter. Be gentle with garden plants while harvesting vegetable plants. If vegetables are not easily removed when twisted or pulled then using a knife, scissors, or hand pruners for harvesting vegetables. These garden tools help prevent tearing or breaking of a plant, which could lead to disease infection. Also, be careful not to step on the stems or foliage of the vegetable plants while harvesting.

In case if you are interested in this: Gardening Questions.


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